The cyclone is an effective separation device that uses a centrifugal force field to separate two-phase fluids. It is a non-moving separation device composed of an upper cylinder and a lower cone. In the practice of beneficiation, the cyclone is mainly used for the classification operation in the grinding circuit, especially in the classification operation of fine grinding. It can also dislodge and concentrate the ore for sorting operations.
Different applications naturally put forward different requirements on the technical parameters of hydrocyclones, including structural parameters, process operation parameters, feeding properties, etc., and the various technical parameters are often related to each other, restrict each other, and are not easy to adjust and control. It is required that we must be clear about the technical parameters before choosing a hydrocyclone and make targeted selections.
1. The diameter and height of the cylindrical cylinder of the cyclone
The diameter of the cylindrical cylinder is the main criterion for distinguishing the size specifications of the hydrocyclone and has a certain proportional relationship with the sizes of other parts. Increasing the diameter of the cylindrical cylinder can improve the processing capacity of the hydrocyclone, but at the same time the overflow particle size will become coarser, and vice versa. When processing fine-grained materials and the processing volume is relatively large, we can use multiple small cyclones in parallel to form a group.
2. Diameter of the ore inlet of the cyclone
Generally, the diameter of the feed port is 0.13-0.25 times the diameter of the cyclone. Appropriately increasing the feed port diameter can increase the throughput of the cyclone, but at the same time, the classification efficiency will be reduced. Generally, the cross-sectional shape of the hydrocyclone feed pipe is mostly round and rectangular, and most of them are rectangular. The configuration is mostly such that the long side is parallel to the cyclone axis, and the short side is perpendicular to the cyclone axis.
3. Diameter of the overflow pipe of the cyclone
The overflow pipe is mostly circular, and its diameter is usually 0.2-0.3 times the diameter of the hydrocyclone. Its main function is to lead the separated overflow product out of the body smoothly, constantly, and continuously. Increasing the diameter of the overflow pipe will increase the overflow flow, but the overflow particle size will also become coarser, and the fine particles in the sedimentation will decrease and the concentration will increase.
4. Diameter of the grit port of the cyclone
Generally, the diameter of the grit port increases, the overflow flow decreases, and the overflow fineness becomes finer. However, the amount of sedimentation increases, the concentration becomes lower, and the fineness increases. However, it has no significant effect on the processing capacity of the cyclone, the diameter of the grit port becomes smaller, the discharge of grit decreases, and the phenomenon of “roughing” will occur in the overflow. If it is too small, the coarse particles will accumulate more and more on the top of the cone, resulting in clogging. Under normal circumstances, the diameter of the grit port should ensure that the grit is discharged in an umbrella shape, and an angle of 20°-30° is ideal. The diameter of the grit port is usually 0.07-0.1 times the diameter of the overflow pipe.
5. The insertion depth of the overflow pipe of the cyclone
If the overflow pipe is inserted too shallowly, the short-circuit flow will increase, the separation time will be shortened, the content of coarse particles in the overflow product will increase, and the content of fine particles in the sedimentation product will increase, and the classification efficiency will decrease. If the overflow pipe is inserted too deep, the bottom coarse particles will enter the overflow, reducing the classification efficiency of the hydrocyclone. In general, the insertion depth of the overflow pipe should be 0.5-0.8 times the height of the cylinder.
6. The pressure of the cyclone to the mine
The feed pressure has a direct effect on the throughput and separation particle size of the cyclone. Normally, more pressure should be maintained at 49-157kPa. Increasing the feed pressure can reduce the classification particle size and increase the processing capacity, but at the same time, it will also significantly increase the power consumption and cyclone wear. When working normally, the feed pressure of the hydrocyclone should maintain a stable value.
7. The properties of the slurry of the cyclone
The properties of slurry mainly include density, particle size, and slurry concentration. In the case of the same slurry concentration, the greater the density of the ore, the finer the grading particle size. When the slurry concentration is large and the mud content is high, the viscosity and density of the slurry will also increase, which increases the movement resistance of the particle size and makes the classification particle size coarser. vice versa. The ideal slurry concentration should be determined by the beneficiation test according to the specific production situation.
In summary, the cyclone operator can adjust the slurry pressure, change the diameter of the grit port, the slurry concentration, the cone angle, the size of the feed pipe and the overflow pipe, and the particle size composition of the material during the use of the cyclone. Adjust operations in time. In addition, when choosing a hydrocyclone, it is recommended to buy it from a professional and regular cyclone manufacturer. Combining with its actual production situation, consult professional cyclone technicians, and strive to achieve a win-win situation of technical indicators and economic benefits.
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